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{\titlef High Energy}
\bigskip
{\titlef Astrophysics}
\vskip 1.2truein
{\bf JONATHAN I. KATZ}
\medskip
Department of Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences
Washington University, St. Louis
\vfill
{\bf THE BENJAMIN/CUMMINGS PUBLISHING CO., INC. \hfil}
{\ninepoint\baselineskip=11pt
\line{Menlo Park, California $\bullet$ Reading, Massachusetts \hfil}
\line{Don Mills, Ontario $\bullet$ Wokingham, U. K. $\bullet$ Amsterdam
$\bullet$ Sydney \hfil}
\line{Singapore $\bullet$ Tokyo $\bullet$ Mexico $\bullet$ Bogota
$\bullet$ Santiago $\bullet$ San Juan \hfil} }
\eject
{\ninepoint \baselineskip=11pt {\obeylines
Sponsoring Editor: Richard W. Mixter
Production Editor: Karen Gulliver }
\vskip 1.8truein
Copyright \copyright 1986 by the Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company,
Inc.
\vskip 2\baselineskip
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United
States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada.
\vfil
\line{The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. \hfil}
\line{2727 Sand Hill Road \hfil}
\line{Menlo Park, California 94025 \hfil}}}
\eject
\vbox{\vskip 2.0in}
{\obeylines\it\parskip 7pt
To my teachers, who taught me what I know;
to my wife, who spurred me on;
to my children, who give me hope.}
\endpage
\vbox{\vskip .62truein}
\noindent
{\twelveb Preface}
\vskip 1.44truein plus.06truein
\noindent
This book grew out of a one quarter or one semester course I taught
at UCLA and at Washington University, and I have tried to retain the
informality of lecture notes. It is meant to be explanatory
and expository, rather than complete or definitive.
My students were advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate
students; the reader should be fluent in undergraduate physics,
but need know no astronomy or astrophysics.
The expression ``high energy astrophysics'' means different things to
different people; the contents therefore reflect my interests,
and the comments my opinions. My purpose is to describe the
ingredients, methods, and results of modern astrophysical
phenomenology and modelling. This is mostly the study of
phenomena discovered in the last quarter of a century, and involving
compact or collapsed objects. I specifically exclude cosmology,
general relativity, and the detailed theories of the interiors of
degenerate stars, but review the classical theory of stellar
structure, which is the foundation of much of modern astrophysics.
Most of this book presents a few basic results,
principles, and illustrations which all interested scientists should
know. I hope these will be useful for some time. The remainder
expands upon their implications and applications. Occasionally I try
to offer a new point of view or make a speculative suggestion, but the
bulk of the text rests upon firmer ground. In the last chapter I
describe the understanding of some observed phenomena as it now exists.
I have cited the research literature
only when it is of historical interest, or when necessary to
support a specific assertion. Instead, I have provided citations to
texts and to recent review articles. The reader who plans to begin
research in this field will need to turn to the current literature;
any attempt to survey it would soon become obsolete.
In writing a book I learned how much they are abstracted from earlier
work. It is inevitable that a book on this subject draw on two
excellent recent works, {\it Radiative Processes in Astrophysics}, by
Rybicki and Lightman, and {\it Black Holes, White Dwarfs, and Neutron
Stars}, by Shapiro and Teukolsky, which I commend to the reader.
I have been more indirectly influenced by two older books, {\it
Structure and Evolution of the Stars}, by Schwarzschild, and {\it
Astrophysical Concepts}, by Harwit, whose scientific style was part of
my education. I owe them a debt also.
This book was largely written when I was a guest of the Department of
Nuclear Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
I thank them for their hospitality, Washington University for a
grant of sabbatical leave, and the United States-Israel Educational
Foundation for a Fulbright Lectureship. I also thank\break T. Piran
for comments, my editors for applying just the right amount of pressure,
and my wife for a careful reading of the manuscript.
\headline={\vbox{\vskip 0.125truein\line{\tenbf\phantom{x}\qquad
Preface \hfil}}}
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\headline={\hfil}
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\noindent
{\twelveb Contents}
\vskip 1.44truein plus.06truein
\line{{\bf 1} \quad {\bf Stars}\hfil}
\medskip
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.1} \quad Generalities \hfil 1}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.2} \quad Phenomenology \hfil 3}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.3} \quad Equations \hfil 6}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.4} \quad Estimates \hfil 8}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.5} \quad Virial Theorem \hfil 14}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.6} \quad Time Scales \hfil 17}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.7} \quad Radiative Transport \hfil 21}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.8} \quad Turbulent Convection \hfil 33}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.9} \quad Constitutive Relations \hfil 40}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.10} \quad Polytropes \hfil 54}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.11} \quad Mass-Luminosity Relations \hfil
58}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.12} \quad Degenerate Stars \hfil 62}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.13} \quad Giants and Supergiants \hfil 67}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.14} \quad Spectra \hfil 70}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.15} \quad Mass Loss \hfil 74}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 1.16} \quad References \hfil 79}
\goodbreak
\bigskip
\goodbreak
\line{{\bf 2} \quad {\bf Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics} \hfil}
\medskip
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.1} \quad Kinetic Equations \hfil 81}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.2} \quad Charged Particle Equilibration
\hfil 90}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.3} \quad Comptonization \hfil 100}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.4} \quad Evolution and Collapse of Star
Clusters \hfil 115}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.5} \quad Nonthermal Particle Acceleration
\hfil 128}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.6} \quad Radiation Processes \hfil 141}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 2.7} \quad References \hfil 155}
\goodbreak
\bigskip
\goodbreak
\line{{\bf 3} \quad {\bf Hydrodynamics} \hfil}
\medskip
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.1} \quad Equations \hfil 158}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.2} \quad Sound Waves and Jeans Instability
\hfil 166}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.3} \quad Shocks \hfil 173}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.4} \quad Blast Waves \hfil 182}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.5} \quad Accretion \hfil 188}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.6} \quad Accretion Discs \hfil 194}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.7} \quad Radial Infall \hfil 205}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.8} \quad Jets \hfil 210}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.9} \quad Magnetohydrodynamics \hfil 216}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 3.10} \quad References \hfil 225}
\headline={\vbox{\vskip 0.125truein\line{\tenbf\phantom{x}\qquad
Contents \hfil}}}
\goodbreak
\bigskip
\goodbreak
\line{{\bf 4} \quad {\bf High Energy Phenomena} \hfil}
\medskip
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.1} \quad Accreting Degenerate Dwarves \hfil
227}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.2} \quad Accreting Neutron Stars \hfil 242}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.3} \quad Supernovae \hfil 258}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.4} \quad Pulsars \hfil 268}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.5} \quad Gamma Ray Bursts \hfil 284}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.6} \quad Accreting Black Holes \hfil 297}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.7} \quad Quasars \hfil 300}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf 4.8} \quad References \hfil 307}
\bigskip
\line{\bf Appendices \hfil}
\medskip
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf A.1} \quad Information in Astronomy \hfil
311}
\line{\hskip 36pt \llap{\bf A.2} \quad Fermi at Alamogordo \hfil 316}
\bigskip
\line{{\bf Index} \hfil 319}
\endpage
\headline={\hfil}
i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv xvi
{\bf i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv xvi}
\bye