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Next: Deception and the ``Decision Up: Deception and Denial Previous: Deception and Denial


``Deception and Denial'' are as old as warfare [2]. Denial is straightforward; it refers to denying an adversary useful information, usually concerning one's own forces and plans, but also other intelligence of military value, such as weather and geographical data. The methods of information denial are also straightforward. They include hiding objects under opaque covers, indoors or in forests or caves, encrypting communications or making them hard to intercept by other means, jamming, moving in darkness, reducing incidental emissions of observable signals (this can be as simple as blackouts and radio silence), closing communications channels, etc.

Deception involves supplying false information rather than denying true information. It depends on successful prediction of how an adversary will use that false information. It requires understanding the adversary's thought processes (``getting inside his decision loop'') and manipulating them to the deceiver's advantage.

jonathan katz 2005-09-01